Archive for category Africa

Addis Abeda, Ethiopia ADD/HAAB

Addis Abeda, Ethiopia

ILS 25R&L/Circling 07

Addis Abeba’s elevation at 7625 ft, located in the central Ethiopian highlands gives rise to high TAS and consequent large radius of turns. Plan with a TAS of IAS + 20%. To the N is a mountain range running NE-SW with a peak to over 10,500 ft asl at 7 nm N and to over 11,700 ft asl at 16 nm. 12 nm W is a mountain to nearly 11,200 ft asl; this is separated from the main range to the N by a high saddle. 8 nm SW is a peak to nearly 9400 ft asl. 10 nm S is a large lake forming a useful landmark. 11 nm SE is a peak to 10,220 ft asl. There is a hill to 8209 ft asl (611 ft above threshold), and higher ground beyond, on RH base to RWY 07 at range 5 nm. It is preferable to turn inside this hill during the visual circuit to RWY 07.


The 25 nm MSA is 13,500 ft which is the commencement height for the ILS procedure to RWY 25. The ILS is reported unreliable, and ATC may give clearances below MSA. There is only a circling procedure to runway 07. The terrain drops steeply on both ends of the runway therefore turbulence and down draughts can be expected. Request RH circuits to RWY 07 to avoid Liddetta aerodrome, the high ground to the north, the city and the frequent low cloud which forms to the N early morning.


Runway 25 has an approach light system with sequence flashing lights and PAPI’s. Expect R/T with poor English. The runway has a pronounced hump at the mid-point.


RWY 07 – Preferential runway

A clearance to turn North after take-off may be offered before terrain clearance may beassured. The ends of the runway are slippery when wet. The ramp has a 1.5% slope down towards the terminal buildings and is slippery. Leaving the ramp will require increased power because of the slope. Treat nose wheel guideline markings with caution. Large birds are a nuisance on the runway, particularly Oct to Nov. The ILS localiser antenna fitted for RWY 25 is supported on a huge gantry, in a gully, just short of RWY 07 threshold and appears to protrude into the flight path to RWY 07. In fact it is only 12 ft above threshold elevation.

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Taba, Egypt TCP/HETB

Taba, Egypt

ILS 04/VOR 22

Taba is located in eastern Egypt, close to the Israeli border. Airfield elevation about 2,500 feet, terrain slopes steeply down to the Gulf of Aqaba which is about 10 nm east. Do not overfly Israeli airspace without express permission. Terrain approaches 4,000 ft about 10 nm south of the airfield, approximately 4,500 ft about 30 nm southwest of the airfield, and approximately 3,500 ft at about 15 nm northwest. To the east of the airfield, in Israel, Jordan and Saudi Arabia (all of whose boundaries are close to Taba), the terrain rises even higher. Terrain to the southwest of the airfield rising to over 3,300 ft, parallels the approach to RWY 04.


Expect to be instructed to establish two-way communications with TCP Tower on ‘box 2’ prior to release from Cairo Control.


Visual circuits should be carried out to the northwest of the runway to avoid Israeli airspace. Expect to be offered either an approach via the TBA VOR overhead or the arc procedure depicted on the relevant approach chart. If, on arrival, no reliable letdown aid is available, it is recommended to fly overhead the airfield and carry out a visual circuit avoiding Israeli airspace.


During WIP on the main runway, taxiway “A” (width 45m) has been used as a runway, referred to as 04L/22R and has (a reduced) approach lighting system, edge lights and PAPIs. ATC may refer to the main runway as 04R/22L. Ensure that the correct landing RWY is identified.


RWY 04: Avoid Israeli airspace.
RWY 22L/R: At night or in IMC, turn right on track.
Slight tailwind take-off from RWY 22 may improve performance.
Expect to be instructed to establish two-way communications with Cairo Control on ‘box 2’ prior to release from TCP Tower.


ATC services here may be poor and pilots need to remain vigilant.
There is a lit mast (approx 30 ft tall) on the airfield adjacent to the southwest end of Taxiway A. This is not notified on any chart.






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Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt SSH/HESH

Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt


Significant terrain in the NW quadrant from the airfield. Expect radar positioning to final.


The video shows the approach over the Sinai Mountains


CAUTION: If circling to land on rwy 22L/R, be aware of the island with spot height over 1,700′ amsl, approximately 8 nm SE of the airfield, which is just outside the circling area.


Although SSH ATC don’t use the RNAV approach plate for vectors to 04, if you input the two turning points IVUTA then IMLES into the FMC it will assist in your descent planning as this is exactly where ATC will take you.


It has been reported that navigation aids are sometimes not operating, with no NOTAM notification.
Boarding while refuelling is permitted at SSH (at an additional cost). The Captain may be asked to sign an authorisation form.


Departure clearance is normally given while taxying, expect radar heading after departure with the prospect of an early turn towards KAMIS. Note that 25nm MSA in that direction is estimated at 10100′ (nb the +/- on the charts that denotes un-surveyed accuracy).


After landing ATC will request the following information:
– Aircraft registration
– Port of departure
– Entry point
– Total passengers on board

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Luxor, Egypt LXR/HELX

Luxor, Egypt

ILS 20/VOR 02

The APT is 3.5nm to the SE of Luxor, and 5nm to the E of the River Nile. The terrain Wof the Nile rises abruptly, reaching nearly 1700ft amsl 3nm beyond the river. To the S and SE of the APT are hills reaching 1000ft amsl within 5nm, and just under 2000ft by 7nm.
Radio aids are often unserviceable, or unreliable. The quality of VHF reception can be poor.
Circling is only to the NW of the RWY.


On occasions the parallel TWY has been used as a RWY.


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Hurghada, Egypt HRG/HEGN

Hurghada, Egypt

ILS 34/VOR 16

High terrain to the West resulting in an MSA to up to 9200′.

Every SAT and SUN from 0400 to 0900 traffic to/from HURGHADA subject to delay due to military activity.

Rwy 34 right-hand circuit.

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Sfax, Tunisia SFA/DTTX

Sfax, Tunisia

VOR 15/VOR 33

180 Degrees turns on runway should be executed on turning pads only. Apply greatest possible turn radius to avoid surface damage.


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Rabil, Cape Verde BVC/GVBA

Rabil, Cape Verde

NDB 21/Circling 03
Runway 21 slopes downhill.
The use of PAPIS on RWY 03 is restricted to 4.5nm (due to terrain), but are difficult to see until within 3nm.

Take-off from RWY 21 prohibited.
Night operations prohibited due to absence of runway lighting.

The island is small and terrain only reaches 1,280 ft asl. However, there is a ridge of high ground approximately 4 miles to the south of the airfield which crosses the approach to RWY03. Other islands in the group have high ground to nearly 9,300 ft asl.


The airfield is served by a NDB approach to RWY 21 only. There is no DME. Circling for RWY 03 (for the appropriate aircraft categories) is authorised to category C minima and only permitted to the West of the field. Downwind for RWY 03, the ridge to the south of the airfield will be relatively close. The high ground slopes down towards the runway throughout the final approach and creates an unusual visual aspect. Note that the use of PAPIS on RWY 03 is restricted to 4.5nm (due to terrain), but are difficult to see until within 3nm.
The go-around from RWY 03 will leave you close to any traffic that may be being vectored onto the ILS 01 at SAL; beware lack of coordination from ATC.


Take-off from RWY 21 is prohibited for all Cat C and D aircraft. It is likely that no vertical limit will be placed on the departure from RWY 03 until in contact with SAL. It is essential to contact SAL as soon as possible to ensure deconfliction with aircraft on approach to RWY 01 at SAL.


There are no approach lights to either runway and no runway lighting, however, there are PAPIs set at 3 degrees at each end.  Runway 21 slopes downhill.


NE trade winds predominate. The dry season is from Feb to Jul with mainly fine weather except for occasional early morning mist. The wet season is Aug to Oct with squally showers, however ceiling and visibility seldom drop below 1,000ft/3nm. Temperatures vary little during the year, being between 20°C and 27°C.



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Marrakech, Morocco RAK/GMMX

Marrakech, Morocco

ILS 10/Circling 28
Terrain. ATC.

Marrakech airfield (elevation 1545′) is to the south-west of the city and has significant high ground to the south and east, however none lies within 6nm of the airfield. Be alert to variable ATC standards.


RWY 10

Preferred RWY for landing. Expect a procedural or visual approach. Be aware of the difference between the ILS (MAR) DME and VOR (MAK) DME. The MAK VOR is situated 2.7nm from the threshold.

RWY 28

There are no published approach procedures for RWY 28. Circle-to-land minima is now published with prescribed tracks. Do not land on RWY 28 with a tailwind. If RWY 28 landing during daylight is required, expect a visual approach or fly the circle-to-land procedure. If RWY 28 landing at night is required, fly the circle-to-land procedure. RWY 28 PAPIs are set to 2.5°.


TAKE-OFF RWY 10: As soon as practicable turn RIGHT to MAK VOR, then turn to intended course.
TAKE-OFF RWY 28: Climb on rwy heading to MAK VOR, then turn to intended course.

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Enfidha, Tunisia NBE/DTNZ

Enfidha, Tunisia

ILS 09/ILS 27


RWY 27 is considered preferential for landing and RWY 09 is considered preferential for take-off on the understanding that:

– The crosswind component, including gusts, ist less or equal to 15 KT for dry RWY and less or equal to 10 KT for wet or contaminated RWY.
– The tailwind component, including gusts, is less than 5 KT.
– Wind shear or thunderstorms are not reported or expected.



Landing will be operated as much as possible using instrument approach procedures. In case that a visual approach is permitted, the clearance will be attended by the following conditions: The ACFT must be aligned on the RWY centerline at minimum 7 NM of the RWY threshold with minimum overflight of 2000’.



Select a climb procedure to reach 3030’ as soon as possible.


In addition with the preceding provisions, pilots are to comply with the following procedures:

Initiate noise abatement procedure at or above 830’. Climbing speed to noise abatement initiation point shall be at least V2 + 10 KT.
At or above 830′ Adjust and maintain engine power/thrust in accordance with noise abatement power/thrust schedule Take-off flaps Climb at V2 + 10 to 20 KT.
At 3030′ Accelerate smoothly to enroute climb speed with flaps/slats retraction on schedule.


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